Gennima Gennima

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    Recurrent Miscarriages

    The risk of miscarriage rises with age, but generally 15% of all pregnancies end up in a miscarriage. About 13% of all confirmed first pregnancies are miscarried. The risk for a second consecutive miscarriage is 17%. After 2 consecutive miscarriages, the risk of a 3rdone rises to 35-40%. About 5% of couples having achieved a pregnancy have had 2 consecutive miscarriages and only 2% of couples have had 3 or more.
    A few years back, the cause of recurrent miscarriage was unknown. In the last few years the underlying mechanisms have been revealed. There are 2 basic causes of multiple miscarriages: either there is a problem with the embryo (e.g. chromosomal anomalies that do not allow embryo implantation or development) or there is a problem in the uterine environment (anatomical, hormonal or immunological) where the embryo is supposed to grow. In more detail:

    Problems of the embryo

    • Chromosomal anomalies
    • Low ovarian reserve
    • Problems of the sperm
    • Hormonal problems
    • PCOS
    • Uterine problems
    • Thrombophilias
    • Diseases
    • Lifestyle

    Immunological problems
    • Irregular reaction of the immune system to the embryo
    • Antiphospholidic antibodies
    • Antinuclear antibodies
    • NK cells

    Evidence for immunological control

    Immunological Tests



    Gennima | Gynaecology & Reproduction Center

    346 Kifisias Avenue, 15233 Chalandri - Athens, Hellas
    +30 210 68 16 100
    +30 210 68 30 321 (fax)